Jumat, 14 Desember 2007

Gender & Women's Health

Summary: Health is not simply the absence of diseases, but the complete state of physical, mental and social well being. Gender is a contributing factor to health. Women who are afflicted with mental, social and cultural barriers may develop heart diseases, HIV/AIDS and other communicable and non-communicable diseases leading to premature disability and death. Key words: gender, women's health, HIV/AIDS.

Introduction: Gender is defined as the different roles men and women play in society. Gender plays an important part in our lives as it influences language, social structure and interactions, education and health.

Health according to WHO, is defined as not only the complete freedom from diseases but, a complete state of physical, mental and social wellbeing. Many health issues are affected by gender considerations, particularly those health issues dealing with sexuality and reproduction.

Health promotion campaigns have mainly targeted the biological concerns of women's health without taking into consideration more significant concerns such as cultural beliefs, religion, politics, education, and economic conditions. These factors may be responsible for women not acquiring the necessary knowledge, and to make informed choices and to practice safe contraceptive methods, thereby increasing their likelihood of exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, in particularly HIV/AIDS.

Another, health consideration is the high incidence of nutritional deficiency among women, particularly women who are single parents with several children to feed. The emphasis here is on family survival rather at the expense of women's health. As a result the diet of these women becomes deficient in essential amino acids, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates and fats. Even if the diet is supplemented with essential nutrients lack of sufficient rest and relaxation leads to development of stress that results in high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, strokes and premature disability and death.

CSO reported that the leading causes of female deaths in Trinidad were due to: (1) circulatory diseases (20.1%), communicable diseases (5.6 %), cancer (19.1%), and deaths from external causes (13.2 %). In 1995, the National Health Survey indicated that females had a higher disability prevalence rate of 15.2 % compared to males with disability prevalence rate of 12.1 %.

Lack of access to proper health care facilities and timely treatment are also contributing factors that negatively affect women's health. Despite the availability of some health care facilities, access to basic primary health care may be lacking. Even when primary health care is available, appropriate diagnosis and treatment may be a problem, resulting in prolonged or delayed suffering and even death.

Conclusion: Gender and women's health are important issues that need to be considered in any society. Health care facilities that tend to focus exclusively on the unique biological characteristics of females may be deficient in treating the complex array of problems that may arise with regards to gender and health. Apart from the physical characteristics, mental, religious, cultural and social well being factors must be addressed if proper health care is to be delivered.
About the Author
Dr. Pattron is a Public Health Scientist and Consultant

How God Will Free You From Higher HIV Rates

When you receive the Seal in your forehead you give up many sinful behaviors, including those that put you at risk for HIV and AIDS. Unfortunately more young people today are putting themselves at risk and getting AIDS.

Being sealed by God changes the way you think. You no longer allow yourself to engage in risky sexual behaviors or using drugs with needles. You might be tempted to do these things but you overcome the temptation.

Temptation happens to everyone, even to people who are sealed and belong to God. But when your thinking changes your feelings change too, and you will be found innocent at the trial.

God is watching what you do. And when you are sealed you will watch for God. Again you may go through periods when you can not truly say you have lived for God or put God and Heaven first. But you will always return to God before too long.

HIV infection is on the rise again among young people and particularly among African-American people and homosexuals. In 2004 HIV infections among those aged 15 to 19-years old in the US shot up 20 percent, from 1010 cases to 1213 cases.

For those people 20 to 24-years old HIV cases have gone up around 22 percent, from 3184 in 2001 to 3876 in 2005. But this increase happened over the course of 5 years, where the teenagers saw the 20 percent increase in just 1 year.

Experts who work with these youth say they are more likely than before to engage in risky behavior because they know about the AIDS "cocktail" mixture of drugs that is keeping alive many people who have AIDS.

From years around 1985-1995 people were scared of getting AIDS and it showed in the decrease of risky behaviors. Everyone could see the horror of infected people dying around them--news stories, celebrities, friends, and even family dying.

Now there are ads for the drugs in gay magazines which show muscular, handsome men advertising how AIDS is not going to "stop" them from living and being beautiful. But the reality of the AIDS cocktail treatment is not like that.

The drugs really cause "fat redistribution" and create "lumps" on the body. Nobody infected with HIV taking these drugs will seem very beautiful anymore. They will not be gaunt and ready to die. But they will be fat and unhealthy.

The drugs can also cause resistance to insulin, deadly for anyone with diabetes. The drugs raise cholesterol and increase risk of heart disease. And these drugs are hard on the liver, threatening to end the life too soon with liver disease.

Black men are 6 times more likely to get HIV than white men. And black women are 20 times more likely than white women to get the disease. Why such a disparity? The answer sadly is all about economics.

Many of the young people at risk are chemically dependent and become homeless. The young women have similar problems or are often just pressured into unsafe sex.
God is willing to bring you and anyone else out of the troubles these young people are in. The drug dependence and unsafe sex are the wretched tools of the sadistic satan, who preys on these people.

When God sets His Seal upon you, there is no more reason to have unsafe sex. And no more reason to have uncommitted sex. God will liberate you from the shackles of addictions too.
You may not think you are in one of these at-risk groups of youth. But your addictions and uncommitted sex put you at risk of angering God. You can overcome these addictions and behaviors by receiving the Seal.

About the Author
And now Jason would like to invite you to get your FREE report Are You Making These Mistakes as a Christian? and visit to learn about being sealed here Jason Witt

AIDS - A Historical Review

A disease like none other, AIDS, took the world by storm and grabbed the attention of the medical community. It is rather frightening to realize that this disease is reaching pandemic infection levels throughout the world. This disease is life altering and can quickly become a death sentence. While we are currently making slow advances in the treatment of AIDS and HIV, a review of the historical timeline of this disease can provide us with a clearer picture of how it has impacted the world today.

In the year of 1958, the disease known as AIDS struck its first victim. A man by the name of David Carr began to become very ill, expressing mysterious symptoms such as pneumocystis carinii. The following year, he died. The disease was still unknown at that point, and tissue samples from Carr showed to be HIV positive when tested in 1990.

1959 also showed the first active HIV infection. A man in the Congo proved to be positive for two of six of the genes that make up the AIDS disease. His blood was preserved and later tested. Consequently, the first case of AIDS in America occurred in 1959. A Haitian man in New York City died of pneumocystis carinii, a common problem for those with AIDS. Dr. Gordon Hennigar examined the man's corpse and believed AIDS was responsible for the death.

In 1969, AIDS again showed up on American soil as a St. Louis teenager presented himself to the medical community for treatment of mysterious symptoms that left his doctors baffled. He subsequently died and tissue samples revealed in 1987 that he indeed had died from AIDS.
This fierce disease continued its rampage and in 1975 the symptoms of AIDS began to appear throughout Africa. In the next several years, the disease ran rampant around the world. Its widespread outbreak was proven when in 1976 a Norwegian sailor died of AIDS and it was believed that he contracted the virus in Africa in the 1960's.

In 1977 a man from Denmark and a woman from San Francisco were found to be infected with the disease, with both cases coming from the African continent. The woman in San Francisco had given birth to three children who also carried the disease.

HIV-2 was first diagnosed in 1978, occurring in a Portuguese man who claimed he more than likely became infected in Guinea-Bissau.

In 1980, a man named Gaetan Dugas traveled to the bathhouses of New York and likely introduced the disease to America in a major way. He became known as "Patient Zero" due to the wide spread of the infection that he caused.

In 1984, the HIV virus as we know it became officially recognized by the United States. Dr. Robert Gallo was credited with discovering the virus as well as stating his belief that the virus was what was actually causing AIDS. Until this point, there were suspicions that various activities common in the homosexual community were responsible for the contraction of the disease, such as the use of amyl nitrate 'poppers'.

Dr. Gallo continued to push the advances of AIDS research in the medical community and in 1996 he ultimately discovered that a compound known as chemokines can be helpful in slowing the progression of the disease. This singular advance proved extremely beneficial to AIDS patients everywhere.

These are just a few of the landmark moments in our understanding of AIDS. As our knowledge continues to grow, we gain more and more hope that the disease is something that we will eventually be able to conquer.

About the AuthorFor more information on
HIV and AIDS, be sure to visit www.the-health-hub.com where you'll find information on health topics such as alternative medicine, diet and exercise, healthy living & more

Is Olive Leaf Really Effective?

Olive leaf is extracted from the leaves of the Olive tree in the Mediterranean. It was first used as medicine in Ancient Egypt. For centuries olive leaf was both a food and a home remedy used in many Mediterranean countries. Since the 1800s olive leaf has been a subject of different researches.
Olive leaf is organic and an antioxidant full of vitamin C, zinc, iron, beta carotene and selenium. It increases blood flow and energy thereby giving the energy levels a boost. Olive leaf can be of benefits to people who suffer from chronic fatigue syndrome and arthritis.
Olive leaf can cause the viruses to become inactive and thus prevent them from spreading. It is used with great results to restrain the flu viruses, the HIV virus and herpes viruses. Olive leaf is an effective natural antibiotic with the ability to wipe out bacteria, fungi, viruses and yeasts. Very often it is used for the treatment of Candida and psoriasis skin infections.
For thousands of years olive leaf was a home remedy to reduce fevers. Since late 1800s in Europe olive leaf tea has also been used to treat malaria. It is shown to be more effective than quinine. Poultices made with olive leaves are excellent for skin infections and a great natural treatment for shingles.
Olive leaf is a natural treatment for hyperglycaemia, high blood pressure and high cholesterol. In the Mediterranean such as Spain it is often used to relieve rheumatism pain, arthritis pain, gout and fever.
Olive leaf is one natural remedy that is most effective against antibiotics resistant bacteria. It gets rid of bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, flukes, yeasts, worms and parasites that could cause illnesses in a non-invasive and non toxic way.
Olive leaf is available as tincture, capsules and leaves. It is highly recommended that you take the olive leaf tea with food. A woman who is pregnant or nursing should avoid taking olive leaf because it is very potent. Those who are on prescribed antibiotic must not take olive leaf while on the medication. Olive leaf could interfere with the medicine and cause side effects.
About the Author
About the Author: Paulina Jenkins has a blog on natural remedies and alternative medicine.
olive leaf has been used for healing since the time of ancient Egypt. olive leaf is a very powerful antibiotic.

How to Avoid AIDS as Cases Climb

When you receive the Seal your thoughts change. And that changes your behavior. One of the most crucial changes is avoiding risky sexual behaviors. This is now even more crucial since more people have HIV and AIDS than previously thought.
The United States government is preparing to release new estimates of the number of people infected with HIV or AIDS. Insiders say that number is due to increase drastically.
In fact, that number is said to be increasing at least a third over what the government previously said. More people have HIV or AIDS than has been reported. And that means there is more risk for the average person.
Of course the average person is not at risk for HIV as much as a person who injects drugs with needles or a homosexual person. But the risk still exists, and there is much more risk to get other sexually transmitted diseases.
There is chlamydia, herpes, gonorrhea, and syphilis. These diseases have become much more common in the recent days along with their more deadly counterpart HIV.
These other STDs do not usually kill their victims and can be treated. But a person getting treatment for these diseases can still spread them to other people, another reason not to be a part of any risky sexual behavior.
So far the US government has estimated that 40,000 people come down with HIV every year. Those are some sobering statistics. That is a huge number of people. And now the numbers are even higher.
Experts say the new government figure is going to be 55,000 people or even a higher number. Some of those people will die. Some of them will live terribly compromised lives for a while. For all of them it is the end.
Yet it is not always the end of their risky behavior. Some people with HIV or AIDS continue to share needles and practice unprotected sex. They have an addiction to behavior that is now not only self-destructive but hurts others as well.
New cases of HIV have been estimated at 40,000 for at least 10 years now, but as time passed, Federal funding for AIDS prevention has dropped considerably. So there is less focus on prevention. And the number of cases is climbing.
One of the problems with estimates is that HIV can take several years before it shows up in tests or makes a person sick at all. This is one of the insidious qualities of the disease--it can be spread without even revealing itself.
There are around 1 million people who are still alive and have the AIDS virus in America today. So there are at least a million people who can "share" the HIV virus with you, and 40,000 to 55,000 new ones each year.
You can break your addictions. When you become sealed God does some work on you. He breaks down those old addictions and helps you change into a wonderful new person.
You may not be addicted to heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamines, and so you may not inject drugs with a needle. But you may have an addiction to unprotected sex, which translates into uncommitted sex.
God will break that addiction for you. That addiction to uncommitted sex is the one God is most concerned about. It can kill you physically with AIDS. And if it does not kill you with AIDS it will kill your soul.
But you can become sealed. And when you do your thinking will change. And your behavior will follow. You may still be tempted but you will no more act on those thoughts when you receive the Seal.
About the Author
And now Jason would like to invite you to get your FREE report
Are You Making These Mistakes as a Christian? and visit to learn about being sealed here Jason Witt

Information about HIV /AIDS

It is three decades since the discovery of the HIV virus but we are still lacking information about HIV / AIDS. According to UNAIDS estimates, there are now 33.2 million people living with HIV, including 2.5 million children. Although there is no foolproof cure or vaccine for HIV virus, the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) will ensure that medicines are available at an affordable cost even in third world countries. The search for the vaccine for AIDS remains the challenge for the world today.
Let us delve into some more information about HIV /AIDS. What is causing the spread of the infection? Ignorance. One in three youngsters in the world are still ignorant about how the infection spreads. We have to wake up to the harsh reality of the epidemic and the world's leaders must demonstrate real commitment to keep their promise. We cannot wait another quarter of a century for a vaccine. The need of the hour is the four Ms-motivation, money, medicines and manpower.
Let me burst the bubble on some common myths about HIV /AIDS. Blood donation can cause HIV infection. People today are afraid of donating blood. HIV does not spread through donation of blood, as hospitals and blood banks use disposable syringes. Another myth is that HIV / AIDS spreads through mosquito and bug bites, air, saliva and touch. It is a very important piece of information about HIV / AIDS that it is not spread through mosquito and bug bites, air, saliva and touch.
Promiscuous men and women have largely been held responsible for fuelling the HIV /AIDS epidemic in the world. Stigma towards HIV-positive people needs to be countered if the threat of HIV /AIDS is to be overcome. Stigma is hard to track and its impact even harder to measure. Those vulnerable to and experiencing social stigma and discrimination will be puzzled if they were told that awareness and knowledge about HIV/AIDS is higher than before.Awarenss is not translating into tolerance or a shedding of stigma. The good information about HIV / AIDS is that the number of people contracting HIV infection is dropping worldwide.
Protection against HIV/AIDS and preventing its spread is certainly a key message, but protection using stigma and alienation will go nowhere. It is always challenging to fight for legislation and better policy outcomes. Certain states have law against discrimination of HIV-positive children in schools. But laws and policies cannot be substitutes for a humane approach.
About the Author
The Author, Mary Rose has authored several books including books related to health and fitness. For more information log on to http://www.casanads.com/bm/hf.htm

L-Glutathione Can Eliminate Toxins in the Liver by Darrell Miller

L-glutathione is the reduced form of glutathione, and is a tripeptide synthesized in the animal and plant tissues from glycine, cysteine and glutamate. Commonly known as GSH, it contains thiol groups that are maintained in a reduced state, and is a very powerful antioxidant, considered to be the key antioxidant and protective substance in the body.

Glutathione can reduce any disulfide groups in the cytoplasm within the body of the cell, and ensures that the cytoplasm is a strongly reducing medium protecting against oxidation. It has a synergistic effect with other antioxidants to protect the body against free radicals and oxidizing agents that cause so much damage to the body through what is commonly referred to as 'oxidative stress'. However, there is more to it than that and it attaches itself to toxic chemicals and drugs in the liver and renders them into a state suitable for elimination from the body.

These toxic materials include poisonous pesticides, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals such as mercury, cadmium and chromium and many other substances that we come into contact with due to present day pollution of our atmosphere and foodstuffs. Glutathione can also help protect the body from the effects of chemotherapy and evidence is suggesting possible links with the control of some cancers, diabetes, atherosclerosis and many other degenerative conditions caused by free radical attack and the effects of pollutants.

The way that GSH acts in the cells is that the redox state of the glutathione-glutathione disulfide couple is critical to the health of the intercellular and intracellular fluid. GSH in the reduced state of glutathione reacts with an oxidative agent such as hydrogen peroxide to form the oxidized form, glutathione disulfide and water. It hence mops up oxidizers such as peroxides and free radicals within the cytoplasm of the body's cells, and also in between the cells. The disulfide is then converted back to GSH by the combined action of the enzyme glutathione reductase and NADPH (the reducing agent nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate).

The cycle then repeats so that two molecules of glutathione continue to reduce damaging oxidizing agents without themselves being consumed. In so doing, the NADPH becomes oxidized. A continuous supply of NADPH is needed to allow GSH to undergo these biochemical reactions, and up to 10% of our blood glucose is used by the pentose phosphate pathway by which NADPH is synthesized.

Since this cycle consumes no glutathione, it would appear that a supplement is unnecessary. However, this is not the case since the molecule takes part in other reactions in the body, particularly in the elimination of toxic heavy metals from the body. Mercury is highly reactive with the thiol that GSH is, and so will bind to form a stable Hg-sulfydryl bond in the liver. This mercury-glutathione chelate is unable to bind to other proteins or gain access to the body cells, and is eventually harmlessly secreted. The same is true of many other heavy metals that are reactive with thiol's.

In this way the body is protected from the harmful effects of these heavy metals. However, it results in the loss of the glutathione, and the pollution of modern day living can take a heavy toll of the GSH content of our bodies. For this reason a glutathione supplement is recommended, especially for city dwellers that may be exposed to more heavy metals than those residing in rural areas.

However, the form in which this supplement is taken is very important, because the human digestive tract contains a significant amount of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase. That is an enzyme which apparently destroys glutathione before it can be absorbed. However, it can be absorbed directly into the bloodstream by dissolving the pill between the teeth and inner cheek. It has also been suggestion that the supplement could be administered by injection.
Others have suggested that rather than administer a supplement, individuals could take other supplements that contain the materials needed to stimulate the formation of GSH. Substances such as vitamin C, selenium (important in GSH biochemistry), methionine, alpha-lipoic acid and glutamine could all help to increase the body's production of glutathione. A supplement of the constituent parts of cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid should also help. The dosage ranges recommended vary widely from 50mg to 500mg daily, and the effects of supplementation are not yet well know.

Some specific conditions that this wonder antioxidant is useful in treating include liver disease such as hepatitis, cirrhosis and so on. Patients suffering from these diseases show a massive reduction in their GSH content and prior GSH treatment appeared to offer a significant degree of protection in controlled clinical investigations. Patients suffering from chronic hepatitis C have been found to be associated with reduced GSH levels, particularly if also HIV positive.

Similar deficiencies have been noted in some lung conditions such as asthma and other pulmonary conditions. In such cases it has been demonstrated that administration of GSH supplements sufficient to restore normal levels of the substance improved the patients' conditions by a significant amount. Its effect on atherosclerosis appears to be significant since a decreased level of GSH peroxidase has been recorded in such patients in addition to an increase in lipid peroxides, indicating that oxidation of the arterial wall had been occurring.

Anti-viral therapies that rely on GSH biochemistry for their action have been found to be less effective in those with low GSH levels, and other studies have confirmed that supplementing with GSH improves the response to interferon treatment. These results indicate the activity of oxidizing agents and free radicals in liver conditions, and in fact this has been demonstrated by tests carried out in New York and Philadelphia in the 1990s.

This suggests that the liver is prone to damage by oxidative stress, and that GSH levels may be able to be used as an indication of potential liver disease. What is evident is that a strong case can be made for glutathione supplementation as protection against potential liver, pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, especially by those exposed to specific polluting agents such as primary or secondary tobacco smoke, auto and diesel fumes and chemicals and pesticides.

L-glutathione is useful, not only for the elimination of toxins in the liver, but also in protecting this large and vital organ from the oxidative stress that modern living brings. L-Glutathione and its precursors are sold over the counter at your local or internet health food store.

About the Author
More information on Glutathione and whole body detox is available at VitaNet, LLC Health Food Store. http://vitanetonline.com/

Rabu, 29 Agustus 2007

Older Women & HIV

HIV infections are on the rise. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the number of Americans over 50 who are infected with HIV have grown over 5 times (16,300 people in 1995, to 90,600 in 2003). While seniors represent about 14% of people with HIV, senior women represent 18%. The numbers of women with infections are even higher for American women of color, and come in at a staggering 47% when looking at world HIV infection rates. That means that just under half of all HIV infections are found in women worldwide. One reason for the higher number of older women with HIV was found in a study recently published by Emory University. They surveyed 514 women over the age of 50, and found that their knowledge about transmission was poor. For example, approximately 50% of women believed that vasectomies and diaphragms prevent the spread of HIV. Other reasons include the fact that many older women, who have sex with men, are also not using condoms, knowing they are past the point of having to worry about pregnancy. Women also erroneously think they can't get HIV if they are not engaging in behaviors they deem as risky. The truth of the matter is this. HIV is a virus. It's an opportunist. It does not care if you are male or female. It does not care who you have sex with, nor the numbers of people you have sex with. It certainly does not care about the color of your skin, you bank balance or you age. HIV is primarily spread in two ways. First is though the sharing of contaminated intravenous drug equipment. Second, and more commonly, HIV is spread by unprotected sexual encounters. Women frequently are the receptive partners, and the receptive partners are more likely to become infected. Women who are post menopausal are at higher risk because of the changes in the vaginal tissue. With less estrogen to nourish the vagina, the tissue atrophies (becomes thin) and there is less lubrication. A woman can easily get tiny tears in her vaginal tissues, thus leaving an opening for virus to gain entry to her blood stream. What's a woman to do? 1.Know your own HIV status. Contact your health care provider, or (if you want anonymous testing) the local health department for testing. I do not recommend home testing at this time. First, if you are positive, are you really? And if you are negative, are you really? If positive, confirmatory blood testing is required. Many offices have started using rapid testing in the office where preliminary results can be obtained in 20 minutes. In the meantime you can get the appropriate information on how you need to proceed. 2.Know your partners history (this goes for both male AND female partners ladies!). Do they have a history of multiple partners and unprotected sexual encounters? Have they been tested? When? Did they get a follow up test at 6 months? What were the results? 3.Condoms and lubrication are essential. Use them not only on your partners body parts that may be entering you, but also on any toys you may be utilizing as well There are several online and confidential sources to purchase lubricants, condoms and gloves. 4.Limit your exposure when possible. Think twice if you are engaging in high risk behavior with a casual or new partner. 5.Educate yourself. The information presented here is just a small portion of what you need to know. Each of us bears the responsibility to educate ourselves and our partners. For many women, sexual activity does not stop just because they reach a certain age. I encourage you to continue to enjoy yourselves, but do so safely.

About the Author